Before Turning the Wheel came Upaka

After his enlightenment, the Buddha sat under the bodhi tree for seven days.  He may also have spent longer amounts of time in nearby locations, although Schumann doubts this was so.  What is clear, according to scripture, is that the Buddha did not immediately set out to teach.  He doubted whether he could convey the subtle and profound Dharma and whether others would wake up to it.  It took Brahmā Sahampati, a divine being, to persuade the Buddha to teach the Dharma. (Mv 1.5; MN 26)

When the Buddha resolved to go forth and teach, he eventually set out for the ascetics he previously practiced with.  When he met with them, he delivered the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path in what has come to be known as the Sutra on the Turning of the Wheel.  This Sutra begins the Buddha’s illustrious teaching career.  It also came after a not so successful episode.

On his way to the five ascetics, the Buddha met Upaka, a naked ascetic, on the road.  Upaka, taken in by the radiance of the recently enlightened wanderer, asked the Buddha who was his teacher.  The Buddha announced that he was emancipated through the destruction of craving.  Indeed, he was a teacher himself!  Upaka shook his head and continued forth.  Such was the Buddha’s first encounter as a teacher. (Mv 1.6; MN 26; MN 85)

This is a summary of Schumann’s account of the Buddha’s encounter with Upaka.  The references are to the Pāli Canon.  What are we to infer about the Buddha from this encounter with Upaka? What can we infer about the Dharma from this encounter?  Clearly, he did not offer a formal teaching.  But something about this encounter must have affected how the Buddha approached the five ascetics and his presentation of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.  And, also as important, what lessons can we draw from this encounter for our practice?

Even the Buddha needed to learn as he followed and blazed the path.  This is refreshing to remember as we sit, walk, stand, and lie down here and now!

(Note: Citations such as ‘Mv’ and ‘MN’ refer to the abbreviations for Pāli Canon texts found at the beginning of Schumann’s book.)

The Historical Buddha

The first book on my reading list is H. W. Schumann’s The Historical Buddha (tr. M. O’C. Walshe).  I am about halfway into it and I already consider it essential reading for anyone interested in the life of the Buddha.  Unfortunately this text is no longer available in print (as a paperback), but there are numerous booksellers with used copies at reasonable prices.

I will be commenting on and presenting passages from Schumann’s text in the upcoming weeks.  For now, I will simply remark that I greatly appreciate his mix of historical and scriptural detail, freely drawing insights from available historical facts as well as the Pāli Canon.  His aim is not to disparage scripture with historical detail; rather, he reminds us that the Buddha, the Enlightened One, was a human being and that there is much to learn about the Sutras and our practice from recognizing this fact.

(Note: To purchase Schumann’s book, click on the following link – The Historical Buddha, tr. M. O’C. Walshe.)

Life of the Buddha

In the temples of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom, the following gatha is recited after lunch:

Buddha was born in the Lumbini Garden,

He attained Enlightenment at Bodh Ghaya,

He set in motion the wheel of Dharma at Sarnath,

He entered Parinirvana at Kusinara.

I am reminded of this gatha as I begin my formal study of the Buddha’s life (our first year, first term assignment in the Maitreya Seminary).  These four events – the Buddha’s birth, his Enlightenment, his setting in motion the wheel of Dharma, and his Parinirvana – shape and inspire my practice.  But they are also four events in a life filled with many more, which includes both moments of complete liberation and human frailty.

We are encouraged to focus our study on some particular aspect of the Buddha’s life, as well as read about his life in general.  I am inclined to investigate either the period between his decision to teach and the first sermon or his decision to create the order of nuns.  Both events speak to me at this moment.  May my initial study and suggestions from teachers, friends, and readers guide the way forward.